A party's statement of facts or arguments on which it bases its claim.
Arrangement or settlement between two or more people.
Hearing during which the parties are heard in person before an arbitrator, a judge, a commissioner or any other authorized decision maker in accordance with the principles of natural justice (right to be heard by an impartial and independent tribunal).
File concerning a person against whom a court has issued a criminal conviction for a violation of a law or regulation.
Ability or aptitude of a court or an organization to hear a case and decide on it.
Refers to all of the decisions rendered by courts. It is also the principles of law that stem from court decisions and enable to interpret or clarify the meaning of laws.
Obligation arising from a contract. Private companies who do business with the Government of Quebec may be subject to a contract compliance program (depending on their size and the amount of the contract). This program requires that they establish an employment equity program for the four target groups designated by the government: women, visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples and disabled persons. Learn more about contract compliance programs.
Court decision requiring a person to do something or to abstain from doing a specific action.
Conflict, dispute or misunderstanding.
Distinction, exclusion or preference that openly and avowedly targets a person or a group, that is based on a prohibited ground under the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, and that effectively nullifies or compromises the exercise of a right or a freedom protected by the Charter. Learn more about discrimination.
Disagreement or conflict that can either be the subject of an agreement or be brought before a court.
Duty of reasonable accommodation
Legal obligation, arising from the right to equality that applies in situations of discrimination. It allows for the adjustment of a standard or a universal practice by granting differential treatment to a person who would otherwise be penalized by the application of this standard. There is no duty to accommodate in cases of undue hardship. Learn more about the duty of reasonable accommodation.
Different treatment given to a person based on certain personal characteristics. For example, if a service provider, a landlord, a police officer or an employer treats an individual differently because of his or her race, colour, ethnic or national origin or religion, it is considered a differential treatment.
Measures, other than court proceedings that can be used in circumstances described in the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA). The Act provides for two types of extrajudicial measures: those applied by police officers and those applied by the provincial director under the extrajudicial sanctions program. The manner in which the extrajudicial sanctions program is applied is determined by the provincial director, who in Québec is the Director of Youth Protection (DYP).
A court order while the Commission investigate a complaint or to brings a case before a tribunal, to ensure that evidence is not lost, the protection of a victim of discrimination, harassment or exploitation, or to protect his or her assets.
Groups targeted by equal access to employment programs
Women, Aboriginal peoples, ethnic minorities, visible minorities and disabled persons. Learn more about equal access to employment programs.
Offensive, disparaging, hostile or unwanted behaviour or remarks towards a person or a group of persons that undermines their dignity or their psychological or physical health. A single, serious incident, if it has a lasting harmful effect on the targeted person, can also constitute harassment. Learn more about harassment.
Distinction, exclusion or preference that is based on the application of an apparently neutral rule, policy or practice, but that has harmful effects on a person or group presenting certain personal characteristics, and that effectively nullifies or compromises a right or a freedom protected by the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms. Learn more about discrimination.
In youth protection matters, a unit within a rehabilitation centre that provides intensive monitoring of a child's behaviour and movements that presents a serious risk of danger to him-or-herself or others. Learn more about youth protection.
Obligation imposed by law.
Criminal or penal offenses for which a person has been convicted.
The grounds for discrimination prohibited under the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms are personal characteristics, that is to say individual characteristics that are permanent or difficult to change, such as race, colour, sex, ethnic origin or disability. Learn more about the grounds of discrimination.
Specific clause in a contract, a measure contained in a law, a treaty; a regulation or order, an issue resolved by a judgment.
Prohibited grounds of discrimination under the Charter
Race, colour, sex, gender identity or expression, pregnancy, sexual orientation, civil status, age (except as provided by law), religion, political convictions, language, ethnic or national origin, social condition, a disability or the use of any means to palliate a disability, as set-out in article 10 of the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms. Learn more about discrimination.
Person participating in a juridical act. For example, a person who signs a contract or a person involved in a court action or concerned by it.
Assertion by the accused where he or she declares to be guilty or not guilty of the offence charged.
Bias, preconceived opinion or attitude. Also: Voluntary or involuntary harm done to others.
Time period within which a person may acquire or lose a right. This period varies depending on the relevant right or law at issue. For example, a person usually has a maximum of three years after the event to file legal action in cases of discrimination. However, in cases where legal action is brought against a municipality (or one of its services, such as the police), this period is of only six months after the event. The Commission can also refuse to investigate when a complaint is filed more than two years after the event.
Means used to put an end to any situation of discrimination based on handicap, religion, age or any other ground prohibited by the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms. Reasonable accommodation is an obligation for employers and service providers. Learn more about reasonable accommodation.
Right to equality
Racial profiling is any action taken by one or more people in authority with respect to a person or group of persons, for reasons of safety, security or public order, that is based on actual or presumed membership in a group defined by race, colour, ethnic or national origin or religion, without factual grounds or reasonable suspicion, that results in the person or group being exposed to differential treatment or scrutiny.
Racial profiling includes any action by a person in a situation of authority who applies a measure in a disproportionate way to certain segments of the population on the basis, in particular, of their racial, ethnic, national or religious background, whether actual or presumed.
Learn more about profiling
Testimonial: I experienced racial profiling
Theory or ideology, based on the assumption that there are separate human races, which considers these races unequal. Racism leads to hostile and contemptuous attitudes and behaviours towards certain people because of their color or of their ethnic or national origin. Learn more about race as a ground of discrimination.
Compensation granted to the victim that has been harmed.
Actions taken by an individual or group to inflict a physical, financial or other type of disadvantage in retaliation to another person’s actions. Learn more about reprisals as a ground of discrimination.
Under the Youth Protection Act, to contact the Director of Youth Protection in order to inform him or her of the situation of a child whose security or development is or may be compromised. Learn more about youth protection.
Summons requiring that a person be present at a specific time and place to testify or provide documents (subpoena duces tecum). The law establishes penalties for those who do not comply with this notice (arrest warrant issued by a judge, detention, payment of the cost incurred).
Discrimination resulting from the dynamic interaction between decisions and attitudes that are tinged with prejudice, as well as from organizational models and institutional practices that have prejudicial effects (intended or not) on groups protected by the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms. Learn more about discrimination.
Preconceived or caricatured image based on prejudice that is repeatedly attributed to and imposed upon a group either by the community or cultural practices. Stereotyping can lead to discrimination and exclusion.
In a situation of discrimination, factor taken into account to assess whether a given accommodation measure is reasonable or not. Undue hardship is assessed, in particular, on the basis the cost of the accommodation, its impact on the organization’s operations and on the rights of others. Learn more about reasonable accommodation measures.
Violation of rights
Failure to respect rights under the Youth Protection Act and the Youth Criminal Justice Act. These acts protect children and youth in the care of institutions, organizations or individuals (a foster family, the Director of Youth Protection, a group home, etc.). Learn more about youth protection.